Investment management is about connecting people who have funds and would like someone to manage or invest those funds for them, with organisations or projects that need financing.
Funds management, hedge funds, private equity and venture capital are all just variations on this theme.
A career in investment management means being able to make astute decisions and backing your own judgement. Sometimes it means going out on a limb against the rest of the market, or other times, it means having faith in the management of a new organisation.
Aside from funds management, most investment management jobs recruit experienced hires. If working in a hedge fund, private equity or venture capital organisation sounds like the right thing for you, take steps to gain the experience you need in your early years as a graduate. Here are the five areas we’ll cover in this feature:
The funds' management industry exists simply because people who have money believe there are others who know more about investing than they do. By giving these managers their money to invest, they believe they will earn a greater return on their investment than they could by themselves.
Fund managers usually trade traditional investments such as cash, shares and bonds. For example, managers research and buy shares they believe are undervalued in the market in the belief they will eventually ‘correct’ and rise in value. This selection of shares is known as active funds management. Active fund managers are considered successful so long as they match or outperform a benchmark such as the ASX100. Even if a fund manager makes a loss in a quarter, they are still considered successful if they ‘beat’ the ASX100 – that is, their loss is less than the markets.
Being able to regularly outperform the market though can be tough. This is because as a funds manager, you must consistently bet (and win) against the consensus of the market – and other funds managers – to be rewarded.
Some managed funds are indexed to the market and known as exchanged-traded funds (ETFs). ETFs are more passive and are based on the belief that it is near impossible to get a better return than the market over time. As less ‘active management’ is required, these funds cost less to invest in.
Superannuation funds represent some of the largest clients of funds managers. As superannuation is compulsory in Australia, superannuation provides a ready pool of funds for investment.
Most large banks run funds management and superannuation programs, for example, Commonwealth Bank’s Colonial First State. Other key players such as AMP, Perpetual and, comparison and rating organisation Canstar also offer graduate programs.
As a graduate, you will learn how to manage a portfolio – including researching stocks, making investment decisions, monitoring the markets and communicating findings. Depending on the size of the organisation, each of these tasks may have a specialist team. As a graduate, you may rotate through these teams before deciding on one.
As a researcher or buy-side analyst, your task is to determine which securities to buy for the portfolio. Often you will focus on a specific industry, region or type of product and be expected to run financial models to determine how they might perform in the portfolio. Being able to communicate these findings to your manager and team will be a critical part of the role. You may also be expected to write reports or develop presentations to communicate investment results.
There is a fair amount of independence on the job although you will be part of a team. Within the team, you may be allocated a specific task or stock to follow and you may be required to generate a regular performance report for your portfolio manager.
As a funds manager, you will be rewarded for your abilities. A reputation for managing a fund well – and consistently outperforming set benchmarks – will make you a highly sought-after portfolio manager. You may choose to advance to senior levels, or alternatively even start your own managed fund.
As funds management organisations are often affiliated with a commercial bank, there is scope to move into other areas if you decide to move beyond funds management. As a funds manager, you will develop a deep understanding of and expertise in financial markets and execute trading strategies, which are valuable transferable skills. Further training is often available, for example, support to become a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA).
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While almost anyone can invest in a managed fund, hedge funds are much more exclusive. Hedge funds are privately offered and created for wealthy individuals, who may, for example, have more than a million dollars to invest.
And unlike a managed fund, which seeks to match or outperform a benchmark, the objective of a hedge fund is to achieve an absolute return, that is, a positive investment return in every quarter.
This difference in investment purpose affects the way in which hedge funds are operated. Hedge fund managers are the so-called ‘cowboys’ of investment management with greater flexibility and risk taken in their investment strategies.
They may, for example, use leverage, ‘short’ a stock if they anticipate falling prices or ‘hedge’ or counterbalance any risks in their portfolio. Hedge fund managers collect both a management fee as well as a percentage of profits generated.
The hedge fund industry in Australia is relatively small and it can be difficult to land an entry-level job.
Leading players include Regal Funds Management, Tribeca, Bennelong, Watermark and Ellerston. These hedge funds look for candidates who already have a successful track record and understand the basics of investing and trading.
A typical path into a hedge fund is through investment banking or after an MBA.
If you enter a hedge fund, you will usually start as a research or portfolio manager associate. The tasks are similar to those of a managed fund in that you help your manager and team to pick and track investments. You may also be expected to help communicate the performance of the fund to existing investors and prospective ones.
Hedge funds are typically small in size compared to, for example, an investment bank. Unlike a managed fund which may have specialist teams dedicated for example, to research, investor relations or operations, you may wear many ‘hats’ at a hedge fund. Furthermore, you will work closely with more senior members of the team as well as have frequent contact with clients and organisations – an excellent opportunity to develop your relationship and communication skills.
The structure and workplace of a hedge fund are fairly informal, you will find that the team is fairly collaborative as the firm’s success depends on the performance of the fund – so you’re all in it together!
Working for a hedge fund can be a stressful and intense experience – millions of dollars may be at stake because of your recommendations. You can expect to put in long hours with work often spilling into the weekends. If your fund is successful, however, you will be rewarded financially.
Similar to other results-focused specialisations like private equity or venture capital, advancement at a hedge fund is based on your abilities. If you enjoy working at a hedge fund, you may want to progress to more senior levels or perhaps start your own fund.
At the junior levels, you may be encouraged to become a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA). Support for this (such as study leave) will vary according to the firm.
Working at a hedge fund is highly regarded by the rest of the finance industry. Hedge funds are known to recruit top talent, particularly given the low supply of jobs, and as such, any experience here will be helpful to your career overall. Indeed, you will find there are many career paths if you decide to move on to another specialisation. For example, you might choose to move to an investment bank as a trader or securities analyst, or move to private equity or venture capital.
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It is common in the property market for investors to look for that ‘diamond in the rough’ – the renovator’s dream that you can fix up and then sell again for a tidy profit.
In many respects, this is what happens in the world of private equity. Private equity firms use money from investors plus debt to buy mature organisations that may be deteriorating or not making the profits they should be.
This is based on the belief that the private equity firm can unlock the organisation’s potential and increase its overall value for example, by reducing costs, improving operations or investing in new technology.
Private equity firms do not intend to manage these organisations forever but instead, seek to sell it or make it public on the stock exchange. Investors who commit to private equity funds typically do not see a return for many years.
The private equity industry in Australia is relatively small with key players including Archer Capital, Champ Equity, Quadrant and Wolseley. The size of these funds varies – Australian firms typically managing funds in the hundreds of millions while those in the US are much larger managing billions of dollars in assets.
It is rare for an undergraduate to enter private equity straight from university. Private equity firms prefer to hire the talent they need rather than develop it themselves. A typical route into private equity is through a few years’ experiences in management consulting or investment banking. MBA graduates from top-tier universities may also be considered for roles.
In Australia, finding roles in private equity may be difficult simply given the size of the industry as well as the small size of the firms themselves, which often have less than a dozen employees. If you do join a private equity firm, however, its small size may be an advantage. There are often fewer managerial layers compared to, for example, investment banking. You will likely have plenty of opportunities to work with senior directors.
Most private equity firms have roles that mirror the fund’s lifecycle – raising funds, buying and managing companies and then selling them.
Senior directors are typically responsible for creating the initial fund as this relies on strong relationships and networks. Once a fund is created, investor relations specialists help to manage existing investor relationships while marketing to prospective ones.
At the more junior level, you will likely be involved in researching potential organisations to invest in. You may need to investigate a target’s operations and financial health as well as make recommendations for strategies to improve its performance.
Once the deal is negotiated, you may work directly with the target’s management to meet agreed objectives. This is an excellent opportunity to improve your communication skills as communicating and selling a vision for the organisation is critical.
Private equity firms are meritocracies at heart. Often there are no set number of directors at an organisation and in most cases, if you do good work, you will be rewarded in both pay and increased responsibility.
Experience in private equity is highly regarded by the rest of the finance industry. Skills learnt are easily transferable to many other specialisations and you will likely find no shortage of roles.
For example, if you have experience in fundraising and investor relations, you may want to work ‘on the other side’ such as a superannuation fund, which is seeking to evaluate how to invest their money.
Given private equity firms recruit more experienced hires, further education is not a common experience, however, this will vary according to the individual firm.
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Venture capital is the domain of unicorns, Shark Tank and startups wanting to be the next Facebook.
And for every startup that makes it big (or fails), there is a venture capitalist right behind them.
Venture capital is similar to private equity in that it creates a pool of funds from different investors with the purpose of investing in companies.
However, unlike private equity, venture capital focuses on startups with high-growth potential. Venture capital can be a risky game as startups have a more unpredictable chance of success but with every risk comes the possibility of even greater reward.
Venture capital firms typically provide startups with funding – from early ‘seed’ funding through to Series, A, B and C. In exchange, venture capitalists hope to translate their equity stake into profit if the startup goes public or is acquired.
It is common for venture capital firms to limit their startup investment up to 50 per cent of the organisation, which means the startup’s management remains in control. This is unlike private equity, which usually buys the organisation in its entirety and has a greater mandate for change.
The venture capital industry in Australia is relatively small but has seen a resurgence in recent years, particularly following the dot-com bust in the early 2000s.
Australian venture capital firms include AirTree Ventures, Tank Stream Ventures, Blackbird Ventures, Uniseed, Square Peg, Sapien Ventures and Blue Sky Fund. Some of Australia’s larger banks also have their own venture capital funds such as NAB Ventures and Westpac’s Reinventure.
Like private equity, most firms hire on the basis of experience and required skills and do not run graduate programs. As venture capital firms and the industry itself is small, entry into this specialisation is competitive.
Venture capital firms like to recruit successful entrepreneurs or those with a track record working in funded startups as they are more able to spot ‘winners’ and play a mentoring role to startup founders.
Other routes into venture capital may be through management consulting, private equity or investment banking. If a venture capital firm is more specialist in nature, for example, focusing on biotech, health services or information technology, they may seek experienced professionals who can bring expertise from that industry.
At the more junior level at a venture capital firm, you will be expected to do the grunt work to find and assess potential investments. It can sometimes be disheartening as you are constantly seeking to find the flaws in a startup to determine if it is worth investing into.
At the same time, you will get to meet aspiring entrepreneurs who are passionate about their business and seeing it come to life. Finding the ‘hidden gem’ and seeing a startup succeed is a rewarding experience.
A career in venture capital can be a very exciting one. You are paid to spot the ‘next big thing’ – and if one of your companies does extremely w